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Distillers Grains Technology Council Field Grain

Mycotoxins in Feeds:  CVM’s Perspective

Michael H. Henry, Ph.D. 
Division of Animal Feeds 
Center for Veterinary Medicine 
Food and Drug Administration 
Phone: 240-453-6861 
E-mail: 
Mike.Henry@fda.hhs.gov

Presentation for Risk Management Agency  
August 23, 2006 in Austin, Texas

http://www.fda.gov/cvm/fdaaustintx823.htm 

Action levels for total aflatoxins in livestock feed

Class of Animals Feed Aflatoxin Level 
Finishing beef cattle Corn and peanut products  300 ppb
Beef cattle, swine or poultry Cottonseed meal 300 ppb
Finishing swine over 100 lb. Corn and peanut products 200 ppb 
Breeding cattle, breeding  
swine and mature poultry
Corn and peanut products 100 ppb
Immature animals Animal feeds and ingredients, excluding cottonseed meal 20 ppb
Dairy animals, animals not listed above, or unknown use Animal feeds and ingredients 20 ppb
 

Guidance levels for total fumonisins in animal feeds

Class of Animal  Feed Ingredients & Portion of Diet Levels in Corn & Corn By-products Levels in Finished Feeds
Equids and Rabbits Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 20% of the diet **   5 ppm 1 ppm
Swine and Catfish Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet**  20 ppm 10 ppm
Breeding Ruminants, Breeding Poultry and Breeding Mink* Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet**  30 ppm  15 ppm
Ruminants >=3 Months Old being Raised for Slaughter and Mink being Raised for Pelt Production  Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet**  60 ppm  30 ppm
Poultry being Raised for Slaughter  Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet**  100 ppm  50 ppm
All Other Species or Classes of Livestock and Pet Animals Corn and corn by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet**  10 ppm  5 ppm
  • Includes lactating dairy cattle and hens laying eggs for human consumption. 
    ** Dry weight basis.
 

Advisory levels for vomitoxin (DON) in livestock feed

 
Class of Animal Feed Ingredients & 
Portion of Diet
DON Levels in Grains & Grain By-products and (Finished Feed)
Ruminating beef and feedlot cattle older than 4 months Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet 10 ppm (5 ppm)
Chickens 
 
Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 50% of the diet  10 ppm (5 ppm)
Swine Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 20% of the diet  5 ppm (1 ppm)
All other animals Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 40% of the diet5 ppm (2 ppm)
 
 

Ochratoxin A

  • Produced by Aspergillus sp. (A. ochraceus) and Penicillium sp. (P. viridicatum)
  • Highest levels usually found in cereal grains (corn, barley, wheat and rye)
  • At least nine ochratoxins identified, but ochratoxin A is the most common and has the greatest toxicological significance
  • Nephrotoxic and a suspected carcinogen
  • No FDA action, advisory or guidance levels established for ochratoxin A in US feed
 

Zearalenone

  • Produced by Fusarium sp. (primarily F. graminearum)
  • Common substrates are corn, wheat, barley, occasionally oats
  • Production favored by high humidity and low temperatures
  • Estrogenic mycotoxin, swine most susceptible � vulvar swelling in gilts
  • Toxicity related to reproductive system
  • No FDA action, advisory or guidance levels established for zearalenone in US feed